Sunday, February 17, 2019

AN INTRODUCTION TO THE INDIGENOUS PEOPLES OF LATIN AMERICA



The indigenous peoples of Latin America are the pre-Columbian peoples of Latin America and their descendants. Many parts of Latin America are still populated by indigenous peoples with the following countries having sizable populations: Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, and Peru.


Yucatan, Mexico

Between 2000 BC and 300 BC complex indigenous cultures began to form in Mesoamerica some of which matured into advanced pre-Columbian civilizations such as the Olmec, Izapa, Teotihuacan, Maya, Zapotec, Mixtec, Huastec, Purépecha, Totonac, Toltec, and Aztec which flourished for nearly 4,000 years before the first contact with Europeans.


Antigua, Guatemala

At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in Latin America. Some including the Quechua languages, the Mayan languages, Nahuatl, and Aymara count their speakers in the millions. Many indigenous peoples also maintain aspects of their native culture including religion and social organization.


Cuenca, Ecuador

Like most cultures over time indigenous cultures have evolved to incorporate their traditional customs to accommodate modern needs. Some indigenous peoples, however, still live in relative isolation from Western culture and a few are still counted as “uncontacted peoples” which refers to isolated peoples or tribes who live or have lived, either by choice or by circumstance, without significant contact with “modern” civilization.


Oaxaca, Mexico

Cultural practises in Latin America seem to have been shared mostly within geographical zones where distinct ethnic groups adopted shared cultural traits, similar technologies, and social organizations. An example of such a cultural area is “Mesoamerica” where coexistence and shared development among the peoples of the region has produced a fairly homogeneous culture with shared social patterns, religious beliefs, art, architecture, and technology for more than three thousand years.


Santiago Sacatepéquez, Guatemala

Although some indigenous societies still depend heavily on agriculture in some regions, the indigenous people and their civilizations are credited with the building of pyramid-temples, mathematics, astronomy, medicine, writing, highly accurate calendars, fine arts, intensive agriculture, engineering, an abacus calculator, and complex theology. 


Urubamba Valley, Peru

For much of its history, the majority of Mexico's population have lived an urban lifestyle in cities, towns, and villages. Only a fraction of the population was tribal and wandering. Most people were permanently settled, agriculturally based, and identified with an urban identity as opposed to a tribal identity. Mexico has long been an "urbanized land" which was graphically reflected when the Spaniards encountered the indigenous people during their arrival in the "New World."


Cuenca, Ecuador

This is my brief introduction to the indigenous peoples of Latin America. My plan is to share a number of specific indigenous groups of Latin America in individual blog postings which will include the following groups: Huichol, Zapotec, Quechua, Mapuche, Maya, and Mixtecs.  And if that is not enough, I have decided to also create a series of blog postings on the Aztecs of Mexico who have become more than a slight obsession with me.


Oaxaca, Mexico



Montezuma II was the ninth king of the Aztec Empire and has become my inspiration for a series of blog postings on the Aztecs of Mexico.


Chiapas, Mexico 


San Miguel de Allende, Mexico 


 Otavalo, Ecuador

I am very excited about this adventure and I look forward to sharing the indigenous peoples of Latin America with you. In the meantime, here is the link to my very large photo album entitled THE INDIGENOUS PEOPLES OF LATIN AMERICA to wet your appetite for more!

PS Please remember to click on the first photo when you open the photo album and then click on the "burger" and select slide show if you prefer for viewing. And, of course, you can manually view each photograph if you so choose. 



Until next time, wishing you wonderful travels and adventures wherever the road may take you. Saludos, Laura

                         





























Sunday, February 3, 2019

A BLOGGING ANNOUNCEMENT



WELCOME TO MEXICO AND BEYOND:  LAURA'S PHOTO JOURNEY

After blogging for almost five years I have decided to start a series of blog posts focusing on the indigenous peoples and their cultures of Latin America including the countries of Mexico, Guatemala, Ecuador, Peru, and Argentina where we either lived or had extended stays during our "nomadic years."

My husband suggested this new theme and since he is the one who inspired me and has supported me on this blogging adventure I trust his advice. I was ready for a change and a challenge and I am very excited.

Since my great love has always been cultural anthropology and sociology this will also be a great way to get back to my passion.  And in the process I will hopefully learn a lot more about the indigenous peoples and their cultures which I wish I had known during our years living in and exploring Latin America.

I am very excited about this new blogging focus and I hope you will enjoy it also. Any suggestions or comments are always appreciated and I look to seeing you in near future.  In the meantime, here are a few of my favorite photographs of the indigenous peoples of Latin America.


     Panajachel, Guatemala


      Oaxaca, Mexico


   Chichicastenango, Guatemala


   Cuenca, Ecuador


                       San Miguel de Allende, Mexico         


     Bariloche, Argentina


                   Cusco, Peru


                       San Juan Sacatepéquez, Guatemala


   Yucatan, Mexico 


                     Lago Atitlan, Guatemala

The following link with take you to my photograph album with special emphasis on the countries of Guatemala, Ecuador, and Mexico.

THE FACE OF LATIN AMERICA

In order to view my album, please remember to open the above link and click on the first photograph, and then click on the "burger" on the upper right right hand corner for a slide show.  Believe when I say I am working with the Google "photo gods" to try to make this easier in the future! 



Until next time, wishing you wonderful travels and adventures wherever the road may take you.  Saludos, Laura






Saturday, December 22, 2018

HOLIDAY GREETINGS 2018



Welcome to this holiday posting which is my "Holiday Greeting Card" to each and every one of you who read and follow this blog. The following are some of my favorite holiday images which I have collected over the years living in Mexico and other Latin American countries.

There is a real mix here and I hope you enjoy. With my sincere thanks for joining me this year and wishing you Feliz Navidad (Merry Christmas) and Feliz Ano Nuevo (Happy New Year).


The Christmas tree on the Plaza de Armas in San Miguel de Allende, Mexico.


A Christmas display with the Virgin Mary in Antigua, Guatemala (love the tortillas on the comal).


Christmas stocking hanging on a palm tree on the Pacific Coast of Mexico.


A little Miguelito with his bigote (mustache) in Antigua, Guatemala.


A Christmas tree built of poinsettias (Flor de Nochebuena in Spanish) is one of my favorites.



Three Kings Day procession during the holiday period in Cuenca, Ecuador.


Holiday pinatas hung on the Malecon of Puerto Vallarta, Mexico.


                       
A donkey and a mule decked out for the holidays in Puerto Vallarta, Mexico.


Another wonderful sparkling Christmas creation as seen in the creator's garage in San Miguel de Allende, Mexico.



One of my very favorite holiday images of a Christmas posada parade in Antigua, Guatemala.



Three Kings Day (a.k.a. Epiphany) in Cuenca, Ecuador. Don't you love the Christmas finery.



A Christmas tree of poinsettias (Flor de Nochebuena in Spanish) in the zocalo of Oaxaca, Mexico.



Santa Claus making his escape after delivering his packages in San Miguel de Allende, Mexico.


A beautifully adorned horse for the Three Kings Day procession in Cuenca, Ecuador.


One of our local "chicken" buses decked out for Christmas in Puerto Vallarta, Mexico. Tis the season. Ho, ho, ho!  



Taking a break from the Christmas festivities in Oaxaca City, Mexico with Lobo and our "Charlie Brown" Christmas tree.


A vibrant red framboyan tree sets off a view of Los Arcos in Puerto Vallarta, Mexico which says holiday time for me.



What creativity for a ten year old! Congratulations to Daniel in San Miguel de Allende, Mexico for this beautiful Christmas painting.


Wishing you wonderful holidays and a happy new year and looking forward to seeing you soon in 2019.




Wednesday, December 12, 2018

DIA DE GUADALUPE CELEBRATIONS 2018


1531 Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe anagoria.jpg
Original Picture of Our Lady of Guadalupe shown in the Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe in Mexico City. The Catholic Church considers the image of the Virgin of Guadalupe imprinted on the cloak of Juan Diego as a picture of supernatural origin.


The Virgin of Guadalupe (also known as La Guadalupana and Virgin Mary) is Mexico's patron saint and one of the most important religious figures throughout much of the Latin America world including the neighboring country of Guatemala. Each year in Mexico major celebrations and peregrinaciones (pilgrimages) begin on December 1st and continue daily until December 12th when the birth day of "Our Lady of Guadalupe" is celebrated.


Lovely young senoritas parade in honor of their beloved “Our Lady of Guadalupe (Spanish: Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe), also known as the Virgin of Guadalupe (Spanish: Virgen de Guadalupe), which is the title given to the Virgin Mary.


From the smallest of pueblos to the largest of cities in Mexico, including the capital of Mexico City, the Virgin is celebrated with the culmination of festivities on December 12th.  Throughout the country, including Puerto Vallarta, Guadalupe's feast day is celebrated on December 12th, a day which commemorates her appearance to Juan Diego on the hill of Tepeyac near Mexico City from December 9 through December 12, 1531.

Tens of thousands of people travel to Mexico City to visit the place where the Virgin appeared to the Mexican People. The holiday is a national fiesta that includes traditional music, dances. and fun attractions. Pilgrims bring presents to the virgin, usually bouquets of flowers while other visitors will perform dances and song for her. Some pilgrims walk on their knees on the stone street leading to the Basilica, asking for miracles or giving thanks to the virgin for a petition granted. The chanting, singing, and dancing can last throughout the night.



Many of the pilgrims make their way on their knees, carrying candles, images, and illustrations of her likeness to give thanks and to honor the Queen of Mexico.


On the days leading up to the 12th of December the faithful in Mexico begin the pilgrimage to the Basilica de Guadalupe in Tepeyac to pay homage to La Virgen.


The Church of Our Lady of Guadalupe in Puerto Vallarta, Mexico with its iconic gold crown



THE STORY OF GUADALUPE:

"The Story behind this celebration demonstrates how the Catholic faith gained importance in the hearts of the Mexican people. It is a story of miracles and faith which mark a change in the history of Mexico.


The Spaniards, after they conquered Mexico, had in mind the goal of converting the indigenous Indians into Catholicism. But the Spaniards encountered many difficulties because the Mexican people had existing strong beliefs in their many gods. It wasn't until the story of the Virgin of Guadalupe and Juan Diego that this started to change.


Juan Diego was a young indigenous Indian walking toward the Hill of Tepeyac on December 12, 1531 when he was stopped by the appearance of the Virgin Mary. The Virgin Mary appearing to Juan Diego was a young woman with black hair and dark skin which looked more like an indigenous person. She ordered Juan Diego to go to the Bishop and ask him to build a church at the Hill of Tepeyac. Juan Diego then ran to the Bishop to tell him what the Virgin Mary had told him. The Bishop didn't believe what this young men was telling him and decided to ignore the petition.


The Virgin Mary appeared again in front of Juan Diego and told him to collect flowers from the top of the hill, but because it was December Juan Diego knew that there was not going to be any flowers at the rocky hill. Upon reaching the top of the hill, Juan Diego was surprised to see that it was covered with colorful and beautiful flowers. Juan Diego, as he was asked to, collected the flowers using his overcoat and ran again to see the Bishop.


Juan Diego gave the coat full of flowers to the bishop, and here the bishop discovered the image of Virgin Mary's picture was miraculously traced on the coat. Seeing both the unseasonal flowers and the image of the Virgin, the Bishop realized Juan Diego had told him the truth and The Basilica of the Virgin of Guadalupe was built on the hill of Tepeyac in Mexico City."
Source Credit


An outdoor lovely shrine to honor the Virgin of Guadalupe in San Miguel de Allende, Mexico.


MORE OF THE STORY:  "According to legend the Dark Virgin of Guadalupe (aka Coatlaxopeuh and Tonantzin) appeared before the peasant Juan Diego only ten years after the Spanish conquest. The symbolism of the Virgin of Guadalupe can be interpreted from both indigenous and Spanish perspectives. Whether or not the Virgin of Guadalupe actually appeared to the indigenous peasant Juan Diego in 1531 at Tepeyac Hill is a question of faith. What is certain is that the cultural significance of her image for Latinos across the Americas is indelible.




According to anthropologists, the duality of her symbolism spoke to both Spanish and indigenous Nahuatl audiences in the sixteenth century.

Her very name, Guadalupe is the Spanish pronunciation of the Nahuatl name Coatlaxopeuh, a Mesoamerican fertility goddess.The well-known image is, according to scholars, full of a number of symbols that strongly relate it with the culture and history of the indigenous people." Source Credit


    Visiting with Guadalupe devotees in Oaxaca City, Oaxaca, Mexico

The image of the Virgin of Guadalupe is of a woman with brown skin.  This, and the fact that the account of her apparition to Juan Diego was related in texts in both Nahuatl and Spanish during the time of the Conquest of Mexico by the Spaniards, make her the ideal unifying force for what Mexico was to become:  a mestizo blend of native and Spanish blood. The Virgin of Guadalupe is also identified with the Aztec earth goddess and mother of humankind.

In many ways, the image of La Guadalupana is one that unifies and reconciles Mexico's history and blends its Spanish and Aztec heritage.  She is sometimes called the "first mestiza" or the "first Mexican." 


Aztec dancers also participate in the annual Dia de Guadalupe parades in tribute to Juan Diego, the Aztec peasant, who witnessed the apparition of the the Virgin in 1531.

The legend of Juan Diego meeting the Lady of Guadalupe is also credited with the linking the polytheistic beliefs of the indigenous people of Mexico and Latin America with the Virgin Mary.  "Our Lady of Guadalupe" (Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe) is considered a "Marian apparition" which is a supernatural appearance by the Virgin Mary and a 16th century Roman Catholic icon. Guadalupe is also Mexico's most popular religious image.



The original image of the Virgin of Guadalupe is of a woman with brown skin. This photograph was taken in San Miguel de Allende, Mexico, at one of the municipal markets and was decorated with Christmas ornaments.


 
                              Juan Diego by Miguel Cabrera, 1752
Juan Diego born 1474 in Cuyauhtitlan, Mexico and died 1548 in Tepeyac, Mexico


A modern day Juan Diego continues the tradition of Dia de Guadalupe celebrations in Mexico.


 Music is a vital part of the annual Dia de Guadalupe celebrations throughout Mexico and it is no different in Puerto Vallarta.   


More Aztec dancers marching in their colorful traditional wear while beating drums and shaking maracas rattles filled with seeds or pebbles.


Three children dressed in their traditional "Dia de Guadalupe" finery as seen at La Merced Church festivities in Antigua, Guatemala.



Greetings from this young senorita at the Dia de Guadalupe celebrations in Antigua, Guatemala


In 1745 Pope Benedict XIV declared Our Lady of Guadalupe patron of what was then called New Spain which corresponded to Spanish Central and Northern America.  Pope Leo XIII authorized coronation of her image in 1895.  Pope Saint Pius X proclaimed her patron of Latin America in 1910.  In 1935 Pope Pius XI had a monument in her honor erected in the Vatican Gardens.  In 1992 Pope John Paul II dedicated a chapel in her honor within St. Peter's Basilica in the Vatican.  He also decreed Our Lady of Guadalupe patron of the Americas in 1999.  And finally, Pope John Paul II canonized Juan Diego, the Mexican peasant, in 2002 who first witnessed the apparition of the Virgin.


This muchacho is dressed as a young Juan Diego at the Dia de Guadalupe celebrations in Antigua, Guatemala and is my favorite "Juan Diego."


 Father and son dressed in their "peasant" finery representing Juan Diego during the Puerto Vallarta parades.  Please note the "bigote,"or moustache, which is a must for both Papa and nino!


I believe this was the youngest "Juan Diego" participant I saw in the annual Dia de Guadalupe celebrations in Antigua, Guatemala.  Que lindo!


The Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe (Spanish: Basilica de Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe) is a Roman Catholic church, basilica and National shrine of Mexico in the north of Mexico City. The shrine was built near the hill of Tepeyac where Our Lady of Guadalupe is believed to have appeared to Saint Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin. This site is also known as La Villa de Guadalupe or, in a more popular sense, simply La Villa, as it has several churches and related buildings. The new Basilica houses the original tilma (or cloak) of Juan Diego which holds the image of Our Lady of Guadalupe. One of the most important pilgrimage sites of Catholicism, the basilica is visited by several million people every year, especially around 12 December, Our Lady of Guadalupe's Feast day.

 HISTORY OF THE BASILICA OF OUR LADY OF GUADALUPE



A mural and tribute to Our Lady of Guadalupe (aka Virgin Mary) as seen in San Miguel de Allende, Mexico.


 Another "Juan Diego" celebrating the birth of Our Lady of Guadalupe at La Merced Church in Antigua, Guatemala.


There are eleven nights of parades in Puerto Vallarta in honor of the Virgin of Guadalupe who is also the patron saint of the Church of Our Lady of Guadalupe, known locally as La Iglesia de Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe, in Puerto Vallarta.



Celebrating Dia de Guadalupe in Oaxaca City, Oaxaca, Mexico and aren't you handsome and proud!


This photograph was taken in San Miguel de Allende where an altar/shrine had been set up in honor of the Virgin - simply lovely!


Irregardless of personal beliefs or persuasions DIA DE LA VIRGEN DE GUADALUPE is one of the most important and celebrated occasions in Latin America which is certainly true in Mexico and Guatemala. Feliz cumpleanos (happy birthday) to Our Lady of Guadalupe! I have included photographs which were taken during the Dia de Guadalupe celebrations while living in both Mexico and Guatemala. 


DIA DE GUADALUPE PHOTO ALBUM

Thank you for joining me in this special holiday and wishing you well wherever your travels should take you.  Until next time, remember memories are only a click or tap away!