Sunday, July 7, 2019

THE AZTECS AND THEIR AWESOME ACCOMPLISHMENTS



Mesoamerica is a term used to describe the region roughly corresponding to modern day Mexico and Central America which was inhabited by various societies before Spanish colonization following the discovery by Christopher Columbus of the "New World."

Included in that new world was the Aztec Empire which dominated most of central Mexico as well as other territories in Mesoamerica from the early 14th century until the Spanish conquest in 1521.

The term Aztec is usually used to refer to the Nahuatl-speaking people of central Mexico, but more specifically it describes the Mexica people who built Tenochtitlan, the capital city of the Aztec Empire, and the inhabitants of its allies, the Acolhuas of Texcoco and the Tepanecs of Tlacopan.




Modern day Mexico City was built on the ruins of the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan. A majority of modern day Mexicans are mestizos a term used to describe a person of combined European and indigenous descent. The Nahuatl language of the Aztecs has been spoken in central Mexico since at least the seventh century CE and is still spoken by approximately 1.7 million people primarily in the mountainous regions of Mexico.

My introduction to this awesome indigenous culture include the following accomplishments of the Aztec which I find particularly worthwhile sharing. So if you are ready, let's meet the Aztecs!


#1  THE AZTECS BUILT ONE OF THE LARGEST AND MOST POWERFUL EMPIRES IN MESOAMERICA




Map of the Aztec Empire
Map of the Aztec Empire at its greatest extent

The Mexica were migrants who arrived in the Valley of Mexico around 1250 AD and founded the city of Tenochtitlan in 1325 AD. Initially they allied with and paid tribute to Azcapotzalco, the capital city of the Tepanec Empire. In 1426, the Azcapotzalco king arranged the assassination of the Mexica ruler. The following year Tenochtitlan allied with the city-states of Texcoco, Tlacopan, and Huexotzinco to wage war against Azcapotzalco. They emerged victorious in 1428.

After the war, Huexotzinco withdrew. The other three city-states formed the Triple Alliance with Tenochtitlan soon becoming the dominant power. The alliance waged wars of conquest and expanded rapidly after its formation. At its heights, the Triple Alliance or the Aztec Empire controlled most of central Mexico as well as other territories.



#2 THE AZTECS WERE HIGHLY SKILLED ENGINEERS


Artist depiction of the causeways that linked the Aztec capital to the mainland

When the Aztecs founded the city of Tenochtitlan in 1325 it was a small swampy island in Lake Texcoco in the Valley of Mexico. This posed a great challenge to the Aztecs as anything they would build would sink due to the geography of the region. They ingeniously met this challenge by pounding wooden piles into the lake bed below water in close packed formations to provide a firm foundation for their buildings. These pilings were then surrounded by volcanic stone to add strength.

The Aztecs connected their city to the mainland by building three causeways to the north, south, and west. The fact that their structures built on top of these foundations didn’t topple or sink bears testament to their amazing engineering skills. The causeways were built straight and were as wide as 45 feet. The causeways had retractable bridges which could be opened in order to allow the passage of boats or as a defense measure in case of attempted invasion.
#3 THE AZTECS PERFECTED THE TECHNIQUE OF CREATING ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS CALLED CHINAMPAS



Chinampa painting
A 16th century painting depicting the Aztec building chinampas
Chinampas were basically man-made artificial islands. The Aztecs perfected the technique of building chinampas allowing them to create new land to farm and to live on. A chinampa was created by staking out the shallow lake bed and weaving the stakes together to form fences. The fenced off area was then filled with mud, lake sediment, and decaying vegetation which eventually brought it above the level of the lake. Trees were often planted along the perimeter to stabilize these artificially built islands.

The lake provided the chinampas with moisture filled with decomposing organic wastes that irrigated and fertilized the artificial island’s soil which in turn supported an intensive and highly productive form of cultivation. The chinampas could produce up to 7 crops a year providing enough food for the rising population of the Aztec cities.

#4 THE AZTEC CITY OF TENOCHTITLAN WAS ONE OF THE GREATEST CITIES OF THE TIME

Tenochtitlan recreation
Depiction of the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan by Mexican muralist Diego Rivera


Tenochtitlan was the capital city of the expanding Aztec empire during the 15th century. Founded in 1325 Tenochtitlan became the largest city in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica until it was captured by the Spanish in 1521. Today the ruins of Tenochtitlan are located in historic center of the Mexican capital.


Tenochtitlan with its streets, causeways, canals, aqueducts, marketplaces, palaces, and buildings like the Templo Mayor was one of the most marvelous cities in the world at the time. When the Spanish first saw Tenochtitlan they were so amazed they doubted whether it was real or whether they were hallucinating.


Diego Rivera's "The Marketplace Tlatelolco" is a representation of the multiple products, services, activities, and personages to be seen at this great Aztec marketplace.


Diego Rivera's mural as seen at the National Palace (Palacio Nacional) in Mexico City depicting life in Aztec times.


At its peak Tenochtitlan was the largest city in the pre-Columbian Americas. It covered an estimated area of approximately 4 l/4 square miles and had a population between 200,000 and 300,000. At its height its population was approximately twice the size of London or Rome and was one of the largest cities in the world.


Depiction of the Aztecs Templo Mayor in Tenochtitlan

The Templo Mayor (Spanish for "Greater Temple") which was called Hueteocalli by the Aztecs dominated the central sacred precinct of the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan. Topped by twin temples dedicated to the war god Huitzilopochtli and the rain god Tlaloc it was a focal point of the Aztec religion and the very center of the Aztec world. Construction began sometime after 1325 and it was rebuilt six times.



View of the excavation site of the Templo Mayor today which is located on the main plaza of Mexico City

The Temple Major was destroyed by the Spanish in 1521 in order to make way for their cathedral which they wanted built on its site and which is still located on the Plaza de la Constitucion (the main square) of Mexico City as seen below.




The Metropolitan Cathedral of the Assumption of the Most Blessed Virgin Mary into Heavens (Spanish: Catedral Metropolitana de la Asunción de la Santísima Virgen María a los cielos) is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Mexico.

#5 THE AZTECS HAD GREAT KNOWLEDGE OF MEDICINE AND
PERFORMED SURGERIES



An Aztec physician preparing a herbal medicine as depicted in the Florentine Codex which was written between 1540 and 1585 and is the most authoritative statement we have of the Aztecs' life ways and tradition.

The Aztecs believed that there were three main causes of illness: punishment from an angry god or goddess, black magic inflicted by an enemy, or by natural causes.
Ixtlilton, an Aztec god of medicine


Aztec physicians, known as tictils, were accomplished herbalists who also did medicinal research. They had a great knowledge of herbs and plants and apart from using them for prophetic and religious activities, they also used them in medicine. Aztecs also used traction to help reduce the affect of fractures and sprains and splints to immobilize fractures. After a surgical procedure they often covered the wound with crushed plants to aid the healing process.


                              Patecatl, god of healing and fertility

In Aztec mythology, Patecatl is a god of healing and fertility, the discoverer of peyote, as well as the lord of the root of pulque. Pulque is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented sap of the maguey plant. It is traditional to central Mexico where it has been produced for millennia. And in my opinion, pulque would have been very much appreciated prior to undergoing the knife which were made of volcanic glass.  Ouch!


#6 THE AZTECS HAD A RICH TRADITION OF POETRY, SCULPTURE, AND MUSIC



A depiction of Aztecs making music. Rock on Aztecs!

The highest form of art in the Aztec culture was song and poetry with contests being held at most festivals. The Aztec passed down their poetry verbally and it was only after the Spanish conquest that collections of their poems were made. The most famous among these is "Romances de los señores de la Nueva Espana" (Romances of the Lords of the New Spain). The Aztec also played various musical instruments including the flute and drums.

Another depiction of the Aztecs making music which looks like quite a party!

The Aztecs were also skilled at carving sculptures in stone and wood from small figurines to large monuments. The most famous work of Aztec sculpture is the Aztec Sun Stone (Spanish: Piedra del Sol) which was carved from solidified basalt (lava) stone sometime between 1502 and 1521.



Image of the Aztec Sun Stone at the National Anthropology Museum in Mexico City.

The Aztec Sun Stone depicts the five worlds of the sun from Aztec mythology. It is an elaborately carved disk which for the Aztecs and other Mesoamerican cultures represented rulership. One theory is that the face at the center of the stone represents Tonatiuh, the Aztec deity of the sun. It is because of this that the stone became known as the "Sun Stone." 

Weighing approximately 24 tons the stone is approximately three feet thick and measures almost 12 feet in diameter. Its design is rich with animals and other symbols which are all part of  the complex cosmology of the Aztec.  For example, the deity Tonatiuh sits in the middle holding a human heart in each hand. His outstretched tongue is a blade for ritual sacrifice which was a common Aztec practice.

Somehow this massive stone carving was "lost" for 300 years, but it was eventually found in 1790 during repairs on the Mexico City Cathedral on the central plaza of Mexico City.  Which obviously begs the question:  How does one loose a carved stone sculpture of this magnitude!


Visiting the famous Aztec Sun Stone at the National Anthropology Museum in Mexico City is a definite must!  

Their most prized art form, however, was feather work which was created by the Aztec artisans weaving together brightly colored bird feathers to form cloaks and magnificent headdresses which were worn by their leaders including the Aztec emperor Moctezuma II (aka Montezuma).



Modern reproduction of the headdress of Moctezuma II as seen at the National Museum of Anthropology in Mexico City. Tradition holds it belonged to Moctezuma II, the Aztec emperor at the time of the Spanish Conquest.
A little current history and dispute concerning Moctezuma's headdress:


Xokonoschtletl Gómora, born 17 February 1951 in Mexico City, is a Mexican dancer who performs to Pre-Hispanic traditional music, a writer, lecturer, and civic activist. He was commissioned by the United Nations for the Frente Mexicano Pro Derechos Humanos (English: Mexican Front for Human Rights) to promote the protection of Mexican cultural heritage. He is best known for leading the Asociación Civil Internacional Yankuik Anahuak (International Civil Association of the People of the Valley of Mexico) and because for over thirty years he has pushed for the return of a quetzal feather headdress (Nahuatl: quetzalpanecáyotl) known as Montezuma's headdress currently located in the Vienna Museum of Ethnology.

With my sincere appreciation for your efforts, Xokonoschtletl, and best wishes for your success, Laura

The Aztec tradition of feathered headdresses survives as seen today in Mexico.


A lovely modern day Aztec "princess" wearing a gorgeous feathered headdress.


I was proud to try on a replica of the magnificent feathered headdress of Moctezuma II when visiting the Museum of Anthropology in Mexico.  Isn't it simply stunning!


#7 THE AZTEC WERE THE FIRST TO PROVIDE UNIVERSAL COMPULSORY EDUCATION FOR ALL CHILDREN

Dressed up in their Aztec finery for a special school day. 

The Aztec Empire is regarded as the first state to implement a system of universal compulsory education. Every child was educated regardless of his or her social status, whether noble, commoner, or slave.




From the ages of twelve to fifteen all children were required to attend schools where they were taught ceremonial songs, history, and the culture of their civilization. Boys and girls attended different schools. Formal education for the girls usually ended at the age of fifteen. 






There were two schools for the boys after the age of fifteen: the Telpochcalli, which was the school for the poor and was primarily military in nature, but also included civics, history, and religion. And the Calmecac which was the school for the nobles which also included military training, but also the study of religion, governing, astronomy, math, architecture, and history.




The above accomplishments are just a few of the many accomplishments of the Aztecs, but were some of my favorites.  I am definitely looking forward to a return trip to the incredible Museum of Anthropology in Mexico City to revisit and spend more time with the Aztecs. In the meantime the following link will magically transport you to this outstanding museum:

MUSEUM OF ANTHROPOLOGY MEXICO CITY BLOG POSTING


And last, but not least, the following link will transport you to my blog posting with many colorful images of modern day Aztecs including my two favorite following photographs.

FIESTA DE LOS CONCHEROS








  thank you for joining me in this introduction to the Aztecs and their awesome accomplishments. Be forewarned:  I have developed more than a slight obsession with the Aztec culture and I look forward to sharing more of the Aztecs with you in the near future. Until then, I wish you well wherever your travels and adventures may take you.


Saludos and gracias, Laura in my Aztec "Sun Stone" shirt


























Sunday, June 9, 2019

HAPPY FIFTH BLOG BIRTHDAY 6.10.19




Another year has flown by and I realize that today is my blogs fifth birthday. Tomorrow June 10th is actually the date I "gave birth" to this creation, but I have made the "executive" decision that today being a Sunday would be a good day to have a birthday party. 

So here we are. Another year of sharing our "nomadic" life and all of its wonderful memories. And since I was running out of "nomadic" memories I have started posting on the indigenous peoples, cultures, and traditions of Mexico and Latin America.  This new focus really excites me and I love the entire process of researching, learning, and writing new blog postings.

As part of my birthday celebration the following links will magically take you to the published blog posts for the fourth year.  Enjoy, por favor!





A BLOGGING ANNOUNCEMENT





AN INTRODUCTION TO THE INDIGENOUS PEOPLES OF LATIN AMERICA




INTRODUCTION TO PORTUGAL AND SPAIN





PUERTO VALLARTA: SCULPTURES OF THE MALECON




SEDUCTIVE SEVILLE, SPAIN AN INTRODUCTION





ANTHONY BOURDAIN: TRAVEL AND HIS WORDS OF WISDOM





PUERTO VALLARTA: FUN IN THE SUMMER SUN



MAGICAL SINTRA, PORTUGAL




DAY OF THE DEAD (DIA DE LOS MUERTOS) 2018





 MONDANNARI STREET ART FESTIVAL PUERTO VALLARTA




THE EXOTIC FRUITS OF MEXICO




THE QUECHUA INDIGENOUS PEOPLE OF THE ANDES

























THE INDIGENOUS MAYA OF MEXICO AND GUATEMALA





MEXICO: ITS FIESTAS, CELEBRATIONS, AND PARADES





EASTER CELEBRATIONS IN MEXICO 2019




CINCO DE MAYO IN MEXICO REVISED 2019\




MEXICO: CULTURE, TRADITIONS, AND CELEBRATIONS PART 1







PUERTO VALLARTA: AN ANNIVERSARY RETROSPECT



Thank you for joining me at MEXICO AND BEYOND:  LAURA'S PHOTO JOURNEY. I sincerely appreciate your sharing my blog and please do not hesitate to email me to share your suggestions and recommendations.  Until my blogs next birthday, I wish you well wherever your travels and adventures may take you. Saludos, Laura




BLOG LINK    https://lauraaloveland.blogspot.com/

AND MY EMAIL ADDRESS:   lauraannloveland@gmail.com

For those of you who missed my blogs fourth "birthday party" here is the link with all of the postings for the third year:

Saturday, June 1, 2019

PUERTO VALLARTA: AN ANNIVERSARY PHOTO RETROSPECT




I have been feeling nostalgic of late. I don’t know if this is because the years are passing more and more quickly or because I am appreciating more and more the life we live. Whatever the reason, I thought it would be fun to create a blog posting sharing the changes through photographs that we have seen and experienced in Puerto Vallarta since our arrival here twenty three years ago. It was Puerto Vallarta's 101st anniversary yesterday so sharing this post today is my belated best wishes to our hometown even if I'm a day late.





When my husband and I started thinking about moving to Puerto Vallarta to live full time we had no idea what a change it would be from our life in California. My husband and I are both native-born Southern Californians and we only knew Mexico from driving excursions through this amazing country. I loved it all. The beauty of the country, the generosity and friendliness of the people, the culture and history, and of course, the food!




When we finally decided to make the move to live full time in Mexico we had no realistic idea of what to expect. But we soon found out. It was challenging. It was exciting. It was an adventure. It was beyond anything I had imagined. And looking back with hindsight it provided me the necessary “ingredients” to create my blog, MEXICO AND BEYOND: LAURA'S PHOTO JOURNEY, at the suggestion of my husband.


I have created this blog posting as a retrospect of Puerto Vallarta through vintage photographs which are mostly in black and white which I found on the web and from photographs we have taken over the years. Here is my visual recollection of Puerto Vallarta in the past and Puerto Vallarta in the present and I hope you enjoy.


LOS MUERTOS BEACH



Los Muertos Beach (Beach of the Dead) sometime in the 1950's


How did Los Muertos Beach get its name? There are a number of versions, but I think this sounds the most reasonable: The beach was a sacred cemetery of the local Indians. This was first noticed when residents started building by the beach and started digging up bones in ceramic pots, a local Indian tribal custom when they buried their dead. The most recent evidence provided by Archaeologist Dr. Joseph Bode Mountjoy Harris of the University of North Carolina also supports this theory.



Los Muertos Beach in Puerto Vallarta as seen today.


Los Muertos Beach is the most popular beach in Puerto Vallarta. Up until the 1960s it was the favorite place for Vallarta families and their Sunday picnics. They would gather in the shade of palm frond lean-tos and eat the tacos they had brought from home in straw baskets, or the tacos that they bought on the beach, adorned with a little bit of shredded cabbage and seasoned liberally with red hot sauce.





Visitors can enjoy the local culture at Los Muertos Beach and also hang out here as do the expats.  It's a lively place, full of tradition, and a great place to have a refreshment by the edge of the sea and watch the famous sunsets.


Sunsets come in all colors, but they are all spectacular at Los Muertos Beach.


THE MALECON (BOARDWALK)



A vintage photo of the Malecon "boardwalk" in Puerto Vallarta before it was redesigned in 2011 and became a pedestrian only promenade.

Malecon is a word used in Spanish-speaking countries, and especially in nations of Latin America, for a stone-built embankment or esplanade along a waterfront where people can walk and enjoy the scenery.




While many areas in Puerto Vallarta can be easily enjoyed on foot walking the Malecon stands out as a must-do activity in Puerto Vallarta. Day or night, alone or in a group, at a leisurely pace or even jogging, the Malecon is a social gathering place for visitors and locals alike.








A spectacular collection of bronze sculptures, many of which were commissioned to local artists, adorn the length of Puerto Vallarta's remodeled Malecon.





A handful of local artists have been granted special permits to build sand and stone sculptures on the beach adjacent to the Malecon. And while it is not expected, a small tip is certainly appreciated by the artists, particularly when you take photos of their creations.





In addition, other artists transform themselves into motionless human sculptures along the Puerto Vallarta Malecon to every one's delight. I cannot image the effort involved in "getting dressed" for the day and how these "living statues" deal with the hot tropical Puerto Vallarta sun while dressed. 



A "Pancho Villa" living statue on the Puerto Vallarta Malecon. Bravo senor!


An "Angel with sword" statue on the Puerto Vallarta Malecon.  Bravo, senor!

The following link will magically take you to my previous blog posting for:

THE SCULPTURES OF THE MALECON


THE ZOCALO AND THE LADY OF GUADALUPE CHURCH




The Lady of Guadalupe Church on the zocalo (main plaza) of Puerto Vallarta before she received her crown. Check out the attire of the locals way back then with ladies in dresses and men in full-length pants. 

Church of Our Lady of Guadalupe, officially known as La Iglesia de Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe, has been called "one of the most endearing" of Puerto Vallarta's landmarks and I certainly agree.





The church tower at the Puerto Vallarta zocalo is topped with a wrought-iron crown hoisted by angels designed to resemble one worn by Empress Carlota of Mexico.




The gazebo on the Zocalo (main plaza) of Puerto Vallarta has always been a place to meet and celebrate.



The remodeled and updated gazebo in Puerto Vallarta where music and dancing on the zocalo have always gone hand in hand. If you look closely at this photo you can see the Church of Guadalupe looking down on the main plaza of Puerto Vallarta and its gazebo.


THE PUERTO VALLARTA PIER





The first Los Muertos Pier was built in the early 1960s and was constructed as a launch point for the cast and crew from the film "Night of the Iguana" which was directed by John Huston and featured Richard Burton, Ava Gardner, and Deborah Kerr with Elizabeth Taylor in attendance to keep Sr. Burton "company." The ramshackle wooden pier was built to make transportation of the cinematography equipment easier.


After almost 30 years a concrete pier was built with the help of local residents and government funding. This updated structure served its purpose, but was not a tourist attraction and became an eye sore.





Lo and behold the magnificent new Los Muertos Pier which was designed by architect Jose de Jesus Torres Vega, winner of the Biannual Architecture Prize. It sits in place of the old pier on Los Muertos Beach and was built as a part of the renewal project of the whole downtown area of Puerto Vallarta including the new Malecon boardwalk which was completed in 2011.





The pier resembles a large sail with sweeping line extensions. There is over 2,000 square feet of space that extends 320 feet into the ocean. It includes pedestrian walkways, seating, a waterfront promenade, colorful lighting, and a landing dock that can berth up to six medium size boats including water taxis, fishing charters, and private vessels. The new Los Muertos Pier is functional, modern, a great tourist attraction, and a spot for locals and visitors to enjoy.


The following are some other miscellaneous vintage photos of Puerto Vallarta I found while researching this blog posting which I wanted to share because I think they are wonderful.





Richard Burton and Elizabeth Taylor of Hollywood fame had a home in Puerto Vallarta and were instrumental in Puerto Vallarta becoming a booming seaside vacation destination from the sleepy fishing village it had been.




During the course of filming, and for many years to follow, Burton had a beautiful casita in the village. It could be found in the “Gringo Gulch” neighborhood of Puerto Vallarta and afforded spectacular views of the downtown area and Banderas Bay itself.

It may come as no surprise, however, that Burton's Casa Kimberly (which is now an upscale hotel option when visiting Puerto Vallarta) was just across the street from Elizabeth's Puerto Vallarta house and was the perfect solution for their desire to be close.



It was Burton who commissioned the now famous "Lovers Arch" which connects the two homes and can still be seen today so that he and Elizabeth could maintain their own homes while visiting each other as much as they wished to.



The above vintage photos are of Richard Burton and Elizabeth Taylor which were taken in Puerto Vallarta.





This vintage photo of crossing the Rio Cuale (River Cuale) was no easy feat before the modern pedestrian bridge or the two swing bridges were built.




The new modern pedestrian bridge allows families and friends to mix and mingle  and enjoy the river which empties into the sea.  It also connects "Old Town" to the Zocalo (the main plaza) and is a great form of exercise!





Th two swing bridges that cross the Rio Cuale to the Isla Cuale have recently been reinforced, but they can be a challenge and somewhat awkward if you have to hang onto the safety fencing for balance as I do!




A stationary contemporary and colorful pedestrian bridge was built in 2012 which connects the Isla Cuale to the upper "Gringo Gulch" neighborhood which was the hillside residential area named after the foreigners who lived there including Richard Burton and Elizabeth Taylor of Hollywood fame.


This wonderful structure is situated just a few steps from the Vallarta Cultural Center and offers spectacular views of the mountains, the river, and a peak of the Pacific Ocean and is definitely my kind of bridge!




A vintage photo of ships delivering people and/or goods to Puerto Vallarta in front of Los Muertos Beach in 1957.  Please note the palapa thatched roof and the libations ready to quench a seaman's thirst.





Quite a change from the old ships are the huge cruise ships which stop for the day in Puerto Vallarta on the other side of the bay which we can see and photograph from our south of Puerto Vallarta location. Some of these ships can appear as large or larger than the condominium towers you see in this photo. Yikes!



The Malecon (Boardwalk) in Puerto Vallarta was and still is the main focal point of Puerto Vallarta. Check out the vehicles!



The gazebo in the zocalo of Puerto Vallarta is still a happening place.



Donkey/burro delivery and transport in Puerto Vallarta as seen in bygone years can still occasionally be seen today.


Some local donkeys (burros in Spanish) as seen today in the Emiliano Zapato barrio in Puerto Vallarta.



Photo of the Guadalupe Sanchez Torres family in Puerto Vallarta

A little Puerto Vallarta history to go with the above photo image:

In 1851 Don Guadalupe Sanchez Torres, originally from Cihuatlan, Jalisco, began to make regular deliveries of salt from San Blas or the Marias Islands in his small boat since the local mines required large quantities for refining the silver.

Don Guadalupe and his men built a small lean-to from tree trunks and palm leaves so that they would have a place to rest out of the sun while the salt was being loaded onto donkeys for transport to the mines.

Toward the end of 1851 Don Guadalupe decided to bring his family to Puerto Vallarta (formerly known as Las Penas de Santa Maria de Guadalupe). With the arrival of new families the village grew little by little and its economy began to change. While some families brought in salt, others began to devote themselves to agriculture or cattle raising. Quite the humble beginning for what we now call Puerto Vallarta.



Horses and old "horseless" vehicles learning to get along in Puerto Vallarta.

The following four photographs were on display yesterday in Puerto Vallarta in honor of Puerto Vallarta's 101st anniversary.  Of course I had to take photos of the old photos to share with my blog amigos. I like to think I am not the only one who enjoys old photographic memories.


Working with oxen to plow the fields around Puerto Vallarta is not often seen in today's modern era.


Planting the fields to grow produce as needed for the hungry citizens of Puerto Vallarta.


Communal transportation in Puerto Vallarta back before old American school buses were imported for local needs.


Bringing home the catch of the day to help feed the family!

I sincerely hope you have enjoyed my retrospect of Puerto Vallarta. I certainly have enjoyed putting it together and learning more about the history of this beautiful town. Until next time, I will leave you with a "vintage" photo of myself along with my current "blogging photo" taken on the Rio Cuale bridge. Gracias for joining me and I hope to see you again soon.  Laura